ASUU Part Quatre: We Have An Agreement

Before you complain that Peter Jackson’s Lord of The Rings only had 3 parts, I have 2 words for you – The Hobbit.

First of all, shout out to the good man who dug up this agreement, scanned it and emailed it to me. As we say here in Blighty; you Sir, are the dog’s bollocks. Thank you.

I think the first thing that struck me about this agreement is how strong ASUU are as a union. I wonder how other unions will feel if they see the kind of stuff ASUU managed to extract from government. Part of the reason for this, in my opinion, is immediately obvious when you look at the list of the people who negotiated for both sides. While the ASUU delegation was led by its President and senior members, the government side was led by Gamaliel Onosode and some other Professors and ex Pro-Chancellors. The highest ranking members of the negotiating team from the government side appear to be some civil servants who acted as ‘observers’.

This is not to invalidate the agreement of course – the government clearly signed it so they should honour it. But when you look at the composition of people purportedly negotiating on behalf of the government, ASUU were already 1 nil up even before anything was signed. Does anyone know why things were done this way? Was it that relations between government and ASUU had broken down to the point where they couldn’t sit round a table and trash out the issues? Not even a minister?

To the agreement proper – there were 4 main issues to be negotiated namely 1) Conditions of service [salaries] 2) Funding 3) University autonomy and freedom 4) ‘Other matters’.

Here are the highlights of the agreement as I saw them

1. ASUU asked for and got a special salary structure for themselves called Consolidated University Academic Salary Structure II (CONUASS). This CONUASS was further made up of 3 components – 1) CONUASS I [the previous one from 2007] 2) Consolidated Peculiar University Academic Allowances [CONPUAA] 3) Rent.

The CONPUAA was apparently to capture all the other allowances that they wanted but not captured in the CONUASS. Stay with me. The reason why they were allowed this was because the committee agreed that ‘Nigerian academics represent the critical mass of scholars in the society’ and as a result of this they ‘deserved unique conditions that will motivate them […] to attain greater efficiency’.

2. In exchange for this new pay, ASUU agreed to be of good behaviour and not do anything that disrupts the academic calendar to get whatever it wants i.e. no striking.

3. Next thing they did was to look at the countries where Nigerian academics frequently migrated to e.g Botswana, Ghana and other developed countries. Based on this they came up with a salary structure that would prevent this kind of brain drain. They called this Table 1. The highest salary anyone could earn based on this table was N7.5m per annum.

But ASUU then seemingly looked at the government’s condition and took pity on them because the government didn’t have a lot of money and then gave them some sort of ‘discount’. This gave birth to Table 2 in which the highest possible salary was N6m. The cynic in me thinks this was simply a clever negotiating tactic but I wasn’t there.

4. As far as I am aware from all of ASUU’s statements since the strike began, the government has complied with this CONUASS salary structure. Indeed it will be difficult for the government to not pay them the salary they agreed to. It is the next bit that seems to have caused all the problems and it’s easy to see why.

Something called Earned Academic Allowances was also agreed to by both parties. In essence, this was supposed to be a kind of piece-rate payment where ASUU members as academic staff were paid a fixed amount for each unit of work they did. So for supervising postgraduate students, a Professor was to be paid N25,000 per student while a Lecturer 1 and Senior Lecturer were to be paid N15,000 and N20,000 per student respectively.

For Teaching Practice/Industrial Supervision/Field Trips, a Professor was entitled to N100,000 per annum. Further, if a Professor did more than one field trip in a year, he would be paid separately for each one. Even though this money was for field trips, such an academic staff would be entitled to mileage and overnight allowance in line with government regulations. It’s unclear why, after being paid N100,000 for a field trip, the same person will then be entitled to mileage and overnight allowance. What is the definition of ‘field trip’ I wonder?

There was also Honoraria for helping to conduct exams internally or externally ranging from N45,000 for Master’s to N105,000 for Doctorate. For moderating external undergraduate or postgraduate exams, there was a separate honoraria ranging from N60,000 for 50 undergraduate students to N80,000 for more than 10 postgraduate students.

To encourage young academics to ‘further’, postgraduate study grants were to be given – N350,000 per session (up to a maximum of 2 sessions) for a science based masters and N500,000 per session (up to a maximum of 4 sessions) for a science based doctorate. The figures were N250,000 and N350,000 respectively for non science studies.

I am not too familiar with the intricacies of academia but another N200,000 was to be paid to external assessors for the position of Reader and Professor. Call duty and clinical hazard allowances were to be paid to those who qualified to them per existing government regulations.

It is unclear what a Responsibility Allowance is (at least to me) but a Vice Chancellor and Librarian were entitled to N750,000 per annum for this allowance while ‘all other officers’ were entitled to N150,000.

Excess Workload Allowance was to be paid per hour to teaching staff ranging from N2,000 per hour for a Graduate Assistant to N3,500 per hour for a Professor.

You can see the problem with these allowances – there is no way for the government to know how much they will cost in advance. They could cost N10bn or they could cost N100bn. Lecturers would simply submit the bills and the government would have to cough up the money. You can also see that ASUU played a clever hand by giving the government a ‘discount’ on the base salaries while loading up with all sorts of allowances elsewhere. For a lecturer earning say N3m per annum, it wont take much for he/she to earn an extra say 50% of that salary through all these allowances. The government isn’t there on the campus so it will simply get the bill to pay. And I have not even mentioned corruption.

5. There were other non-salary benefits in the agreement as well. Each academic staff was entitled to a car loan equivalent to his/her annual salary charged at 2% for administrative cost (stop laughing). They were also entitled to a car refurbishment loan for those who wanted to refurbish their old cars, again charged at 2%. At least with a car loan you get to see the new car if you want to, but refurbishment? That’s just money in the bush.

For housing loans, each academic was entitled to 8 times his/her annual salary to buy a house. After 6 years service, an academic would be entitled to a sabbatical leave. If this sabbatical was abroad, the university would pay the ‘transport’ costs for the academic, a spouse and up to 4 children. If hospitalised, an academic would be entitled to 6 months paid sick leave which could be extended for another 6 months.

Retirement age was increased from 65 to 70 and any one who retired as a Professor would be entitled to a pension equivalent to his/her final salary. Indeed even if the Professor retired before the retirement age of 70, he would still be entitled to the final salary pension provided he had served as a Professor for 15 years in a university.

University staff and their spouses as well as up to 4 children under the age of 18 were entitled to health insurance. There are various other benefits in the agreement but these are mainly standard stuff like maternity and 26 days leave.

What I find interesting is that while the section on pay was quite specific in what university staff were entitled to, as soon as you get to the other sections, everything turns to a ‘recommendation’. So for example it was recommended that the government spend N472bn on the universities in 2009, N498bn in 2010 and N549bn in 2011. Somehow, the Federal Government was also supposed to fund the State Universities (at least recommended to) on a per student basis i.e. N3.7m per student in total from 2009 to 2011.

Another recommendation was for the state and federal governments to spend a minimum of 26% of their budgets on education. Of this amount, at least 50% was to be allocated to universities. Bear in mind that this was a negotiation between ASUU and the FG – the primary and secondary school interests were not represented there but ASUU was effectively making a recommendation on how much they should get from the budget. In all this, there are 1.2m students in our universities while we need to find a way to get 10.5m children into school.

It was also recommended that the Education Tax Fund be changed to a Higher Education Fund i.e. solely for the universities, polytechnics and colleges of education. This would be hilarious if it wasn’t so scandalous – after taking 50% of the budget, the universities were to take 100% of the ETF as well. You couldn’t make it up but then, when you start negotiations from the premise that there is a critical mass of nation transforming scholars in our universities, this is not a surprise. I wonder if the mumu NUT who are threatening to go on strike in solidarity with ASUU know that ASUU don’t really give a toss about them.

Universities were also to access the Petroleum Technology Development Fund (PTDF) for the training and development of their staff i.e. more money for ASUU and government was to grant universities duty-free importation rights for educational materials. Given that even our churches have been known to terribly abuse such waivers in the past, this is amusing to say the least.

Where the agreement descends into outright farce is when it reaches the section on autonomy. Having demanded and obtained all the above things from the government, ASUU then proceeded to add insult to injury by asking that university autonomy and academic freedom should be ‘enhanced and protected’. Note that this agreement wasn’t exactly reached with smiles and good-natured banter – it came after a strike that eventually forced the government to the negotiating table. So ASUU were not only asking the government to give them as much money as they could demand with a straight face, they were asking to be left alone to spend it and run their affairs as they wish ranging from changing the laws impeding university independence to allowing them admit students as they saw fit. You want the government to look after you and your family by paying everything you want and you want the same government to grant you freedom and autonomy. Eh?

As I’ve said several times before – this dispute is all about pay and nothing else. The thing with recommendations is that they are just that; recommendations. You cant take someone to court for not following a recommendation. So it was up to the government to follow those parts of the agreement or not. But ASUU weren’t messing about with the parts that concerned them. The numbers were clearly specified which is why today they can say the government is owing them N92bn in earned allowances or whatever the figure is. It is also the same reason why the government feels it can throw N30bn at them and ask them to ‘manage’ it. Afterall its ASUU’s word against the government’s.

You hardly come across the word ‘student’ in the agreement at all. And there is nothing specific about infrastructure in there other than the large sums of money the government was supposed to give the universities. There are many people today making ignorant noises about government ‘honouring the agreement’ and even coming up with things that are not in said agreement as ‘ASUU’s demands’. There really isnt anything for anyone in here other than ASUU so personally I’d say, leave them to fight it out with government.

Who in Nigeria wont like free medical insurance for their family? This is why I get confused when the whole debate about education comes down to pay. Even if we had the best universities in the world, there will still be a case for paying our lecturers more. 99.9% of humans beings, when asked if they wanted more pay, will respond ‘Yes’. So why exactly is this the pillar on which the arguement always rests?

You can also see the sinister side of ASUU in the draft amendment bill with the way they were eager to tightly regulate the private universities via the NUC to protect themselves… going as far as recommending up to 5 year jail terms with no option of fine for anyone who so much as uses his property for the operation of an unapproved university.

Be that as it may, I think the government should honour this agreement. It should pay every last penny. That is the only way it might learn a lesson for the future. How you can send a team of ex-academics to negotiate with a team of academics on your behalf is beyond me. But hey, I don’t know what went down in those days. Once this strike is over, prepare for the next one because as sure as night follows day, it will come.

Ultimately this document shows the impossibility of reaching an ‘agreement’ after one party has forced a negotiation via hostage taking. There is absolutely no way in this life or the next we are going to have anything approaching education reform until we break out of this death spiral of strikes and pay deals. The conversation we need to have has not even begun at all. My suggestion will be that the government should just pay ASUU whatever it is it wants right now and then begin talks on university reform i.e. the lecturers need to be in class when negotiations start. That way, we can know what everyone really wants.

Now that I have sufficiently poisoned your mind, you may read the agreement for yourself by clicking the link below

FG And ASUU Agreement 2009



37 thoughts on “ASUU Part Quatre: We Have An Agreement

  1. This agreement is just farcical. Government has learnt the age-old practice of hear them out, sign whatever they want and then let the next Administration worry about the strikes and headaches.

    But this further reinforces the fact, that Government has no business being in business. It can’t even negotiate on its behalf and it’s negotiators do not even understand the implication of what they are signing off on.

    Almost makes one question the sanity of so-called ‘boardroom gurus’!

    Thanks for the piece, Feyi. Enjoyed the series. Quite enlightening.

    1. And yes, “my mind has drunk from the pierin spring of your poison and only another drink restores it” LOL.

      A paraphrased quote taught to all 400L law students in OAU by an ex-ASUU Professor now lecturing in China!

  2. Mind poisoned venomously well. Now that we’ve finally seen the agreement and its even worse than we feared, I have to say I disagree with you on one thing FF. The FG doesn’t have to honour this agreement. Let them go to court if they want, the courts can render that agreement null and void on so many grounds and then order a new roudtable negotiation. This time FG had better sit up.

    Of course, this may never happen :-(.

  3. Pingback: ASUU Part Quatre: We Have An Agreement | Y! Opinion

  4. you just nailed your argument you have been amaking all along,it all about the pay for ASUU.But i want to ask a questions,if ASUU recommends all these money for higer education,depriving primary and secondary education of necesaary funding,will our graduates still be topnotch.if students without good academic foundation enter universities can the lecturers with world class academic infrastructure easily pass knowledge to them?we may be creating a bigger problem.the truth is autonomy must come with responsibility.lets Govt and ASUU have a frank discussion on way forward,not this agreement ASUU is talking about.

  5. Can I be your P.A., Sir?

    The work you have put into this is admirable. You’ve done better research than Nigerian journalists. Kudos!

    My mind didn’t require more poisoning as it is already filled w/ bile.

    I have a good mind of counting the months spent on ASUU in my years of study as my National Service. 7months is a good deal I think.

    1. It truly is depressing. You open rot and underneath it you find more rot.
      Sometimes you see why some people take one look at the sheer scale of the task and just decide to chop and clean mouth instead

  6. Your article has basically confirmed what I feel about ASUU. Call me biased, but I never saw anything in my 6 years in Unilag to prove to me that ASUU members deserved to be paid more than secondary school teachers. Their output is still nothing to write home about despite getting their salaries trebled by Obasanjo! Disgraceful!! And those idiots at NUT are taking ASUU’s side without actually reading and understanding the agreement!

      1. Since the day I submitted my final project in OSU, I have not set foot in the place talk less of collecting the certificate.

        If you need to use it for rizla to wrap the Igbo you are smoking, feel free to go there and ask them to give it to you. I’m sure they will oblige as I don’t need it

      2. Feyi,
        Once you allow your responses to begin degenerating to the point of rubbishing your certificate from OSU, then you lose the beauty of your analysis of the ASUU predicament. I don’t see you losing anything from your incisive analysis of the problem even if you claim to have taken something away from your education at OSU however bad it was when you were there. If you want to claim, as your response to go use that certificate to wrap igbo would suggest, that your four-year sojourn there has contributed nothing positive to your life, then that would be an unfortunate inexactitude. Feyi, don’t spoil a beautiful thing. You’ve got followers. Tolu Ogunlesi just called Nigerian universities ‘Citadel of Nothing, even though he graduated from UI. Would you also want to thread that path too?

  7. Feyi,
    I went through three parts of your articles on ASUU. I didn’t get to read the ‘tirade’. I am an ASUU member and I should say as clearly as possible that ASUU deserves all the bashing it is getting right now. We have remained on one spot for far too long. We have refused blatantly to soul-search.

    The issue, as I see it, is a straight dilemma: How do we square what I call ASUU’s union-imperative with the claim that it is interested in the development of higher education in Nigeria. How does ASUU manoeuvre in the interstice between its members and the students?

    You have raised significant issues in each of the articles. Take the strike. Nigerian students have become strike-weary. Some of us are too. Yet, ASUU continues with the strike option. What happens to the students, the sole reason why we are in the university in the first place? A most significant, and unfortunate, point, I believe, is the lack of a blueprint for dealing with students’ academic welfare in our schools. I reference instruction here, and its deep connection to performance which you highlighted. The pay wahala, as you mentioned, is a basic stock in trade of all unions. Yet, where is the concern for students’ educational welfare? Yes, I want to be paid for work done, but I am also concerned about what I am teaching the students. In the final analysis, they reflect my capacities.

    We can reply that the entire strike effort rebound eventually to the advantage of the students. That would not be totally true. I dare say that ASUU, through to its union-imperative, is always on an externalised agitation. We neglect the home front which is the real fight zone if we care about the students. We aren’t visible there just as we aren’t visible in budgetary dynamics. We overlook so many ills and injustices against the students. Yet we fight on their behalf?

    The strike would be resolved one way or the other. Yet there is still trouble ahead–if we remain this way. The first order of business, as I see it, is an internal ASUU SWOT analysis that would give attention to the resolution of the dilemma I mentioned earlier between being a union and caring for higher education. Then we can all sit down in a national education (and not just higher education) summit to discuss the next level for education in Nigeria.

    I love teaching, and take it with all seriousness as a spiritual mandate. Yet, so many things are wrong with it now. And ASUU is barely scratching beyond the surface.

    1. Thanks for your comment and bringing it back to the point of it all – students.
      I can only hope (and pray) that those of you who teach because they love teaching will have the loudest voices, not just inside ASUU but in the conversations about education in Nigeria in general.

      And I wish you all the very best…I mean that sincerely

    2. Only when the political salary structure has been reviewed only then will peace return. The masses are agitated.
      What is good for the goose is good for the ganders
      Other unions have impending or on going strike.

  8. Who is this Feyi guy??? ASUU,NUT(as dey r deservedly named),FG aside… I was drooling at his narration style,simply Brilliant!!! His bio even made my finger agree wit my brain to type all these compliments! This is how I would like to write but 1st I have to get rich or come across as a frustrated asshole ranting with his texts.
    PS: of course all the above r my own Opinion,u don’t have to agree. Well Done Feyi!

  9. I hope you have mailed back your diploma to OSU, bcos at this rate ASUU is going to declare you persona non grata.

    Well, those on ASUU’s side will reply you that if the militants and politicians can be enjoying such huge emoluments, why not them.

    My conclusion is that we are yet to begin a discussion about education in that country. Until then Goodluck!

  10. The write-ups on FG/ASUU are somehow rambling and incoherent . We need a tertiary education system that will meet our needs to develop all the sectors of the Nigerian economy as well help to advance the global frontiers of knowledge . This is the task for all stakeholders . Please note that I am not a member of ASUU or a government official . I still appreciate your blog and articles .

  11. OMG!!!!!!! Wow!!! O gigbigbi!!! can’t fiind my tongue! Hmmmm,hmmmm……Can. Ballpark of what a Prof. will hve earned juxtaposed with that of David Mark,per annum? No cynicism here, I just asked.

  12. Pingback: Last word on ASUU. Read and Weep. | Nonso Obikili's Blog

  13. I realy ven’t supported ds strike frm d word go cos I knew ds laudible story f fightin 4 beta standards in our Unis wz jst a coverup 4 an agenda f deirs hidden sumwere wch u jst helpd elucidate BUT…
    D pnt most persons hold wch 1 prominent Nigerian scholar I cnt rememba nw said doe ds is praphrasin is… D demands f ASUU r unrealistic bt compared 2 wat our politicians who r seeminly doin nothin earn as basic nd allowances, u r 4ced 2 conclude dt every1 is tryin 2 gt a share f d natnal cake or is it chin chin nw…. Wld mk a balanced job if u, FF, wld also try 2 analyse d salary structure f our politicians say a senator 4 instance. Ds is jst my opinion.

    1. For the life of me… I don’t understand why people bother writing at all…Txt spk…?!
      Gone are the days of attempting to generate letters by multiple key presses on a key pad… and this reply column is not limited to 160 characters either…

      Please let’s write like grown folks…

      Ds is jst my opinion… Good job FF 🙂

  14. It is true that ASUU had series of agreement with the FG which you elaborated explicitly. But the question of who was on the side of government at the negotiating table doesn’t concern ASUU. You should be ashame of yourself if you feel countries like Ghana and Botswana should pay their lecturers better than Nigeria. The most reason why Nigerian students flee to those tiny countries for smooth academic calendar. You are only worried that a retired professor would go with his full salaries, surprises!!! Do retired permanent secretaries, generals in the armed forces and any other officer who reached the climax of his career retires with his full salaries? I need an answer. The question of earned academic allowance doesn’t require rocket science to answer. The teacher/student ratio is 1/30, if I teach 1000 students, naturally, I should be paid for the extra. The solution to this grammar of earned allowance is simple. Nigerian universities are short of 33,000 PhD holders, go round the globe and source them, employ them in these universities and close the chapter of these earned allowances. Period!!! By the way Feyi has done a good one. I recommend him to replace Abati.

  15. There are of course a lot of things we do not know about this strike,underlying things that is. Come to think of it,what is the base qualification of many of these Ministers and senators,A bachelors? And yet they earn more than these Profs and Dr’s? They know what they’re asking for,albeit selfish as the students bear the brunt.
    Fact is this whole country stinks. We have a President who considers approval from his party as more important than those of the populace. A whole semester is wasted now. Who will save us from this mess!

    1. Do u know d total number of lecturers under ASUU? If they b paid same wit senators who occupies offices for four years only, where will all d money come from. Fact of the matter is that to receive up to 500k as a salaried worker in Nigeria in a month should be ok for any body.
      What are they eating? Versace rice and gucci beans?

  16. Dear FF,

    I must commend and appreciate your writing and analysis skills. This ‘agreement’ between ASUU & FG shows the kind of politics we are playing in our great country. There’s a popular saying that ‘To win in politics, you’ve got to be the one to bring a gun to a knife fight’….hence in this case, ASUU wins. However, whether to (dis)honour this agreement lies in the morality and purview of our great ‘Oga Jona’.

    Thank you FF for the copy of the file….at least now we have an evidence to confirm/dispute if there was an agreement in 2009 or not

  17. The write up may look very good and somehow, but the question is that do you see any of our representative talking against ASUU demands? The writer missed comparing the lifestyle of political office holders, whom are invariably doing nothing, but to stash money and travelling around the world with that of academics who can suddenly die as a result of brain-drains. In some developed countries like UK, US, Malaysia, and others, teachers, security agents others are the most highest paid and not jobbers politicians. Until when we realise this that everybody will face his or her business. There is nothing a Professor is looking for in the post of councellorship, if not the juicy associated resources. If government that can spent any amount on political campaigns and frivolous projects cannot pay attentions to education and you are writing all these, I wonder when Nigeria is going to develop. The task of developing this nation lies on all of us, so whatever we poise to write or base our analysis must be thoroughly examined, verified and well structured. Thanks.

    1. You fail to address his key point made in the first article about tying the pay to performance. If teachers in developed nations are amongst the highest earning, it is because they have performance based contracts that ultimately selects the most efficient and successful and pays them accordingly… not because of union power.

  18. Both ASUU and the government miss the point by a wide margin, both are trying to eat their akara and have it. Einstein defines madness as doing thew same thing over and over again and expecting a different result, in this sense both ASUU and the FGN are round the bend twice and once more on Sundays.

    Nigerian universities should be privatized and the government should return to its role as policy maker and welfare provider. With the over 70 federal institutions we have, an annual budget of N490bn would translate to only 7bn per institution whereas an institution with 40k students could earn 16bn with N400k per annum in tuition fees. Yes I can hear many shouting “elitist” and “how are the poor going to be able to afford this”, my answer is in two parts, (1) Total education and labour law reform (2) Remember the “welfare provider” role of the government?

    We need to reform our labour laws to recognize 4 levels of basic qualification; O Level, Guild Certificate, Associate Degree (what we call the OND now), and Bachelors Degree with a clear migration path from one to the other and protection for students who have a certificate and wish to further their education. Any advertisement for staff should state clearly which level of certification is required and companies can be sanctioned if they fill positions which require guild certificates with associate degree holders for example. In fact we could take it further and have strict laws on who should be hired for what. This will allow those with limited funds to leave school earlier and still be sure that they can compete for jobs allowing them to earn enough to go back to school later or help other family members as the case may be

    Based on the figures above (20bn revenue vs 7bn for a university) clearly ASUU and the FGN are short-changing our university system by allowing this free system to persist, it will continue to fail (remember Einstein’s theory on madness). Rather the govt. (at all levels, federal, state and local) should institute scholarship funds (backed and required by law) managed by financial institutions along with the NUC and ALL universities. Funds should be disbursed to students who can prove that they are financially disadvantaged. The approval should be sought for by the university (let them fight for the money) and various degrees of funding (eg. 100%, 50%, etc.) could be applied for based on the circumstance of the particular student. Systems like biometrics and bank cards with daily limits, bus passes, health insurance along with direct debits for housing and books should be put in place to ensure that it is simply not worthwhile to scam the system (i.e. each student will only be able to withdraw a max of N2-3k cash per day)
    After going through the Nigerian university system, I can categorically state that at least 30% of the students can pay the tuition, another 30% are scraping by and the remaining do need full financial support. A welfare-based system will ensure that all get the education they deserve and the universities effectively triple their income.
    Having said all this, there is a critical need for financial intervention in our federal institutions and this is the result of decades of neglect, there must be an emergency intervention fund to bring university infrastructure back to an acceptable level, while this is being done the tuition/welfare system should be phased in over a 3-5 year period to ensure that nobody is left out or suffers as a result. The universities must then take over and ensure that they grow the infrastructure to remain competitive
    Finally as my father (a life-long lecturer) always tells me, “When the university depends on the student for its money, no lecturer will ever be able to victimize a student again”, the student becomes the customer and you know what they say about customers….

  19. I wonder this over concentration of resources on universities alone, without adequate resources pump into schools that provide middle level manpower that is critical to our economy. No wonder Nigerian Entrepreneur brings Artisan from europe or Asia to be tossing Nigerian Engineers around. We need to check what type of training make this artisan’s better than our so called Engineers. All this area should be look into instead of Asuu just discussing monetatary benefit.
    Asuu should come up with programmes that will make their product employable, as it is now, training in our universities is not competitive

  20. Admiring the time and effort you put into your website and detailed information you offer. It’s great to come across a blog every once in a while that isn’t the same unwanted rehashed material. Excellent read! I’ve bookmarked your site and I’m including your RSS feeds to my Google account.

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